Ohio law sets forth the different classes of misdemeanors and their sentencing ranges: a misdemeanor of the first degree is not more than one hundred eighty days in jail; a misdemeanor of the second degree is not more than ninety days in jail; a misdemeanor of the third degree is not more than sixty days in jail; a misdemeanor of the fourth degree is not more than thirty days in jail; and a minor misdemeanor cannot consist of any jail time. (more…)
Ohio law states that the owner of a vehicle shall not allow one to drive their vehicle if they know or have reasonable cause to believe that the person: does not have a valid driver’s license; has a suspended driver’s license; or is under the influence of alcohol or drugs. The code lists some more obscure reasons, which can be found here. When the owner and driver live in the same household and are related to each other, the law assumes that the owner knows that the household member’s driver’s license is invalid. (more…)
motor vehicle. Trailers towed at twenty-five miles per hour or less is not included in the definition of motor vehicles. A motorized bicycle is “any vehicle that either has two tandem wheels or one wheel in the front and two wheels in the rear, that is capable of being pedaled, and that is equipped with a helper motor of not more than fifty cubic centimeters piston displacement that produces no more than one brake horsepower and is capable of propelling the vehicle at a speed of no greater than twenty miles per hour on a level surface. A motorized bicycle does not become a motor vehicle unless it is pulling a trailer. (more…)
State v. Dunn, ruled that the police can make a warrantless stop to give emergency aid. In this case, the officer received a radio dispatch that there was a suicidal male driving a tow truck who was planning to kill himself. Although the officer did not observe any traffic violations, the vehicle stop was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court. The Ohio Supreme Court said that the stop was justified under a community caretaking or emergency aid exception to the Fourth Amendment’s restrictions for warrantless searches and seizures. Because police have a duty “to provide emergency services to those who are in danger of physical harm” such stops will often be held to be valid. This exception eliminates the need to show a reasonable basis to rely on the accuracy of a tip, as that standard only applies to investigating suspected criminal activity. (more…)
Robinson v. Bates. In their decision, the Ohio Supreme Court said that both the amount billed and the amount accepted as full payment could be admitted into evidence. Any difference between the original medical bill and the amount accepted is not a benefit. Because a medical bill is good evidence of the reasonable value of charges for medical services, either version of the bills can be used to demonstrate that value. (more…)
decision, the Ohio Supreme Court ruled that automatically imposing a lifetime registration requirement for a juvenile sex offender amounts to cruel and unusual punishment and violates the juvenile’s right to due process of law. In 2006, Congress passed the Adam Walsh Act, also known as the Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORN). In 2008, Ohio became the first state to adopt a law that followed SORN. When the Ohio Supreme Court reviewed this law in its 2012 decision, it noted that most of the states refused to pass similar laws, opposing the lifetime sex offender registration and notification requirements for juveniles. This national consensus of rejecting automatic lifetime registration requirements for juveniles was the first of two factors the Court used to strike down this portion of the law. The second step was to look at the court’s own independent judgment on whether this punishment violates the Constitution. In doing so, the Court determined that: (1) the lifetime registration requirement was much more likely to hinder than to help juveniles obtain stable employment and reintegrate into their communities after their release from custody; (2) was contrary to past decisions that held that juveniles should be treated as less morally capable than adults; and (3) was contrary to the juvenile justice system’s primary purpose of rehabilitation rather than punishment. This analysis led the court to conclude that the severity of lifetime registration and notification and lack of adequate justification renders it cruel and unusual under the eighth amendment to the United States Constitution. The law also denied due process because it is automatic and does not allow the court to consider the child’s background or how publication of the offense might affect rehabilitation.
Extradition is a procedure where a person in one state is surrendered to another state in connection with separate criminal proceedings. Usually, that person has fled the state to avoid prosecution, sentencing or incarceration. A person who flees prosecution or sentencing is called a fugitive. One the fugitive is arrested, he or she can either request a hearing to contest the extradition or can waive the right to this hearing. If the fugitive waives the right to a hearing, he or she will be available for return to the state that issued the warrant. (more…)
Uniform Mediation Act (UMA) as set forth in Ohio Revised Code 2710.01-2710.10 (R.C. 2710.01-2710.10). This privilege gives one the ability to stop other people from revealing what was said at a mediation. Does this mean everything said in a mediation is protected by privilege? No. The following topics are not protected by privilege under the UMA: discussions disclosing abuse or neglect of children and abuse or neglect of the elderly; plans to commit crimes; threats of violence; whether a mediation occurred; and signed settlement agreements. Mediators are neutral third parties who assist the parties with issue identification and problem solving. The mediator will usually meet with each side separately, but some mediation sessions are held with all the parties present face-to-face. Mediation is a useful tool used in several areas of the law, including civil cases, child custody cases, divorces, foreclosures, and abuse, neglect and dependency cases. If the parties do not reach an agreement, the mediator may schedule a follow-up session or may report to the court that an agreement was not reached. (more…)